First of all, diabetes occurs when the beta cells in the pancreas which produce insulin are totally destroyed. As we know the food that we eat turns into glucose or sugar helping our body to use for energy. Once there aren' t beta cells to produce insulin in order to transfer the glucose in the cells, the sugar remains in the blood and because the body cannot use sugar, it is spilled over into the urine and lost. Much more, diabetes can lead to severe health complications, such as heart disease, kidney failure, blindness, lower-extremity amputations and in many cases even death.
Secondly, people who notice certain symptoms which indicate the presence of diabetes should see a physician in order to receive a proper diagnosis. Some of the most common symptoms which indicate the presence of diabetes are: excessive hunger and thirst, frequent urination, dramatic weight loss, lack of energy, dry skin, wounds that heal very hard and even nausea and stomach pains, symptoms which usually occur in type 1 diabetes.
In addition to this, there are two types of diabetes which are quoted from the National Diabetes Fact Sheet: National estimates and general information on diabetes in the United States (Centres for Disease Control an Prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1997). Much more, type 1 diabetes tends to be more serious than type 2 diabetes and usually occurs during the childhood.
Type 1 diabetes also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or Juvenile-Onset diabetes, is a common disease in children and may account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. The factors which cause type 1 diabetes aren’t entirely known but it has been considered that genetic predisposition and environmental factors, such as viral infections might have an important influence. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes. This type of diabetes may appear due to certain factors, such as older age, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, family history of diabetes, physical inactivity, prior history of gestational diabetes and other factors. It has been considered that certain races and ethnicities, such as African Americans, American Indians, and Latino Americans are more exposed to get type 2 diabetes than other people.
Gestational diabetes seem to occur in 2% to 5% of all pregnancies but the good thing is that usually disappears when the woman gives birth. Even though a woman who had suffered of gestational diabetes and healed when the pregnancy was over, might develop type 2 diabetes in the future.
Furthermore, there are other types of diabetes which may account for 1% to 2% of all known cases of diabetes and they occur from genetic syndromes, surgeries, drugs, malnutrition, infections and much other affection.
Medical treatments for diabetes are vital for the body and include important changes in the lifestyle. Diabetes treatments tend to advance in a short time and their role is to maintain blood glucose near normal levels at all times. For instance, type 1 diabetes, the most severe type requires a wide range of procedures. People who suffer from this type of diabetes need a special treatment which includes: administration of insulin injections, home blood glucose testing several times a day, certain, calculated diet and also planned physical exercises. Even though, type 2 diabetes is not so serious like type 1, it also requires a strict treatment which consists in special diets, physical activities, home blood glucose testing, oral medication and 40% of the cases require insulin injections.
The causes of type 1 diabetes are not entirely identified; it is believed that it occurs to genetic predisposition or certain viruses which destroy the beta cells in the pancreas. Some important factors which may develop type 2 diabetes are lack of activity and overweight.
In order to take care of the people who suffer from diabetes, the diabetes community offers, pursued by the US Department of Health and Human Services offer three options: prevent diabetes, cure diabetes and moreover taking better care of people with diabetes to prevent dramatic complications. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is involved in the research of curing type 1 and type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention focuses through their programmes on being sure that the proven science is put into daily practice for people with diabetes.
All in all, even though diabetes tends to be an incurable illness, the science tries to discover and consequently to utilize in practice several methods to cure diabetes, such as pancreas transplantation, artificial pancreas development, islet cell transplantation and genetic manipulation. However, until these approaches become reality they need to pass through a series of investigations like preventing immune rejection, finding an adequate number of insulin cells, keeping cells alive and many others.
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